Cairo Montenotte was a Roman station on the Via Julia Augusta. In the Middle Ages it underwent the Lombard invasion and numerous Saracen raids. It was called Cairum and included in the Marca Aleramica in the 10th century, and then went to the Del Carretto marquises. In 1339 the whole fee was joined together under the Scarampis in Asti. In the following centuries it was attacked by the militias of the Savoys and struck by a serious famine, and was then annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1735. In 1796 in the area the famous battle of Montenotte was fought, with which in one month Napoleon defeated the Piedmontese and Austrians and went through with his army. In the village there are stretches of the fourteenth-century wall, the Porta Soprano gate with the tower over it restored in 1937, and Palazzo Scarampi (15th century) once the residence of the Del Carretto family. In the Rocchetta di Cairo hamlet there is a marvellous fauna oasis, while the Adelasia Nature Reserve lies on the slopes of Montenotte Superiore. These two flora and fauna featires are both included in the Bormida Natura itinerary, which connects the protected areas of the Val Bormida with the Upper Route of the Monti Liguri. On the old piazzas and in the quaint alleys in August Medieval Cairo is held, and this is one of the most important historical costume evocations in the province, in which it is possible to taste local food and wine products.